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(US) AP Music Theory
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PitchPitch is the way frequencies are assigned to a relative musical scale.
Although it's not necessary to know the science behind pitch and frequency, it is useful to have a basic understanding.
Many pianists start by learning the piano key 'middle C', the C nearest to the middle of the piano. The other white notes around this are then given the letters from A-G. The A above middle C is the note to which Orchestras tune and is consequently known as 'Concert Pitch A'.
In around 1939 it was internationally decided that concert pitch 'A' should be at 440 Hertz (Hz).
The frequencies of the pitches of the keys on a piano can then be worked out by the formula:
F(n) = 440[2(n-49/12)] where n is the number of the key (from 1-88).
Concert Pitch 'A' (440 Hz):
'Middle' C (261 Hz)
An octave is the name given to the distance between one note to the next with the same name (12 semi-tones).
More about intervals is covered in the 'Transposition' section
How does this relate to pitch?
A pitch will have double the frequency of the pitch an ocatve lower and half the frequency of the pitch and octave higher.